Structure of the Canine Eye
Aberrant cilia - eyelashes growing abnormally, such as rubbing against the eyeball.
Excessive tearing - possibly due to allergies.
Cataracts - as in humans, a change in structure of the lens of the eye (loss of transparency of the crystalline lens or its capsule) leading to cloudiness and usually to blindness. This is a dominant trait.
Cataract with microphthalmia - a condition where a dog has cataracts along with abnormally small eyes.
Distichiasis, Trichiasis - Eyelashes at the lid margins turn and grow inward or are misplaced on the inner margin of the lid. This results in irritation of the bulbar conjunctiva and cornea. The condition may be recognized after 5 weeks of age. Mode of inheritance - probably dominant, incomplete, penetrance.
Entropion - an inversion or turning inward of the margin of the eyelid. The lower eyelid is most commonly affected. This condition results in irritation of the cornea and conjunctiva and may predispose to secondary infections. Probably a dominant trait.
Glaucoma - An eye or ocular disease characterized by abnormally high pressure in the eye, which can result in irreversible damage to the optic disc and ocular fundus. Mode of inheritance - unknown.
Progressive retinal atrophy - A hereditary condition recognized clinically by diminished visual activity first at dusk (night blindness) and later in daylight. .There is gradual atrophy of the retinal receptor cells and progressive reduction in size of the retinal blood vessels. Cortical cataractous changes frequently appear during the course of the disease, which may be progressive over a period of months or years, always terminating in blindness. Probably recessive.
SKIN & HAIR PROBLEMS
Acute moist dermatitis - known as "hot spots", a localized area of a severely itchy, inflamed and oozing dermatitis exacerbated by the animal's intense licking and chewing at the spot.
Growth Hormone Alopecia
Allergic rashes - due to pollen, dust, fleas, etc.
Keratoaconthoma - a small growth, usually on the face, filled with keratin material.
Melanoma - a rare cancer developing from the type of skin cell which produced pigment (melanin).
Partial alopecia - some loss of the normal hair coat.
Sebaceous cyst - a small mass in the skin with a secretory lining and filled with a yellow waxy-like material.
Several Cardiac Websites can be found here.
Conus Septal Defect - A developmental abnormality of the right ventricle of the heart.
Mitral valve defects - a group of abnormalities of the mitral valve of the heart.
Patent Ductus Arteriosus - Failure of the normal expected closure of the ductus arteriosus (shortly after birth) between the pulmonary artery and the aorta. This channel normally transmits a major portion of fetal blood from the right ventricle to the aorta, by passing the nonfunctional fetal lungs. At birth, a patent (open) ductus arteriosus results in impaired circulation through the lungs and poorer oxygenation of the blood. This is a polygenic trait.
Pulmonary Stenosis - a narrowing of the pulmonary artery, the artery which transmits blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs. This defect can cause right heart enlargement, poor oxygenation of the blood and general weakness. Many animals will go through their lives without any problems. Signs of right heart failure may occur and cause enlargement of the abdomen with fluids, weight loss, and poor exercise tolerance. This is a polygenic trait, with no sex predisposition.
Tetralogy of Fallot - a specific four-way, very serious, developmental abnormality of the structures of the heart and associated great vessels; including narrowing of the valves, thereby leading to an enlargement of the right ventricle; a hole between the left and right ventricles; and aorta dextropositioning. The pumping action of the heart is seriously compromised. There are cardiac murmurs and affected animals are oxygen starved, weak and show poor growth.. In many cases, dogs will die at a very young age or during the neonatal period. This is a hereditary Polygenic trait.
Ventricular septal defect - This is a persistence of the fetal communication between the two ventricles. It is frequently free of symptoms, although heart failure may occur. It is an abnormality (usually a hole) in the wall between the right and left ventricles (two chambers of the heart). This results in mixing oxygenated and unoxygenated blood and a pumping deficiency of the heart. Surgery is feasible at certain university institutions, but usually not required. It is a polygenic trait
Generalized Congestive Heart Failure - This is a combination of both left and right side failure. The causes are numerous: congenital cardiac anomalies, cardiomyopathies, arrhythmias, chronic anemia, pericardial diseases, chronic valvular diseases, infections, excessive activity with advancing age, chronic respiratory diseases, renal disease, liver diseases, endocrine disorders and more. Treatment is varied. Usually, salt restriction, exercise restriction, cardiac and respiratory drugs, and diuretics are used alone or in combination. Prevention includes regular exams, a good diet, moderate exercise, prevention of obesity, and prompt treatment of any medical problem, especially respiratory diseases.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Hip dysplasia - a developmental malformation or subluxation of the hip joints. This is a deformity of the coxofermoral joint. It may be characterized radiographically by a shallow acetabulum (socket), flattening of the femoral head (ball), coxofermoral subluxation (separation), and secondary degenerative joint disease. Recessive, Polygenic Modifier.
Elbow dysplasia - Elbow dysplasia is a general term for four abnormalities of the bones in the elbow that may develop in growing puppies. These abnormalities lead to the development of arthritis in the elbow. The four abnormalities are ununited anconeal process, osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), fragmented medial coronoid process, and lack of alignment of the bones (incongruity). The abnormalities may develop individually or in any combination. These abnormalities may affect one or both elbows.
Patella luxation - a partial or complete dislocation of the patella (kneecap). Intermittent or recurrent luxations are characterized by the animal appearing normal one minute and carrying a hind limb the next. No pain is evidenced and palpation is not resented. Lameness is marked if attempts are made to use the leg. The luxation is usually medial, the stifle being adducted and the hock rotated outward. The affected limb has a "pigeon-toed" appearance. Persistent luxations cause continuous lameness or abnormal gaits. This is a recessive, polygenic trait.
Cleft Palate or Lip - This is an opening in the lip or the roof of the mouth that occurs due to failure of normal fusion processes during embryonic development. Cleftpalate and cleft lip may result from either hereditary or environmental causes (such as the use of certain drugs during pregnancy).
Umbilical hernia - a break in the abdominal muscle wall at the point where the umbilical cord enters the body, resulting in malplacement of abdominal organs. Umbilical hernias appear to be due to failure of normal occlusion of the umbilical ring so that as the intra-abdominal pressure increases, with the pups' growth, the ominum and intestines are forced through its aperture; pushing ahead the peritoneal covered by skin, creating a hernia sack. Recessive, polygenic.
Swimmer puppies - a developmental defect which causes a flattening of the body so that newborn pups are unable to place their feet under them for proper locomotion.
MOUTH and BITE ANOMALIES
Malocclusion - a condition where the teeth do not meet in a proper scissors bite.
Undershot jaw - Abnormality of the skull where the upper jaw is too short for the rest of the head. This is a recessive trait.
Overshot jaw - Abnormality of the skull where the upper jaw is too long for the rest of the head. This is a recessive trait.
Misaligned teeth - a condition where the teeth do not conform to the proper curvature of the jaw line.
Extra teeth - usually seen as one or more extra premolars .
Missing teeth - one or more missing teeth, most often lacking premolars.
Reabsorption/ Premature Abortion
Pyometra - a bacterial infection of the uterus where it fills with pus.
Cushing's Disease (hyperadrenocorticism) - a disease characterized by an excess secretion of corticosteroids from the adrenal glands.
Hyposomatotropism - failure of the body growth hormones (somotometins) to develop fully. Also known as growth hormone-responsive dermatosis. (Similar symptoms to Hypothyroidism)
Hypothyroidism - a common endocrine disease where the body produces an abnormally low amount of thyroid hormones. An autimmune destruction of thyroid gland which affects more than 50 dog breeds.
Pituitary dwarfism - a developmental abnormality resulting in an undersized animal due to defective pituitary gland.
Hyperparathyroidism - HPT can cause loose teeth, brittle bones, and kidney damage.
BLOOD AND IMMUNE SYSTEM
von Willebrand's Disease- a type of bleeding disorder (characterized by moderate to severe bleeding) caused by defective blood platelet function which is corrected by blood transfusion for normal dogs. There is a variable reduction in the level of both Factor VII procoagulant activity and Factor VII related antigen. An incomplete autosomal (dominant) trait affecting both sexes.
URINARY and GENITAL PROBLEMS
Familiar Kidney/Renal Diseases - The kidneys are apparently normal at birth but begin to deteriorate early in life (less than 1 year of age). While the underlying problem in the kidneys varies, the end result is the same - kidney failure for the dog, generally by 5 years of age, although the severity and rate of progression varies between individual dogs. There are a wide range of kidney diseases that are proven or suspected to be inherited.
Renal cortical hypoplasia - a condition where the cortex of the kidney(s) develops incompletely (reduced amount of outer portion of kidney). Signs include elevated BUN, polydypsia, polyuria, vomiting, convulsions, anemia and weakness. First signs may appear at 10 - 13 weeks of age. Recessive.
Urinary Tract infrections
Cryptorchidism - a condition in which one or both testicles do not descend into the scrotal sac. Recessive, Multigenes.
Intersexuality - The dog has both male and female sex organs. Recessive, Sex linked, Dominant (all suggestions)
NERVOUS SYSTEM PROBLEMS
Epilepsy - a disease characterized by recurring convulsions (seizures) and/or disturbances of consciousness. Epilepsy is a malfunction of the brain. The seizures observed are the clinical expression for a state produced by an abnormal excessive neuronal discharge within the central nervous system. (Autosomal Recessive) Usually seen between 3 and 5 years of age.You can also go to the following site for more information.
OTHER DISEASES AND PROBLEMS
Chronic ear infections
Polyarteritis Nodosa - Sometimes described as "Beagle Pain Syndrome" breeds of dogs can develop a syndrome of recurrent intermittent pain and fever that persist for 3-7 days in young animals. The pain can be intense and diffuse, or can be more localized in areas like the shoulder, neck, hip or along the back. This is sometimes confused with Meningitis and it may be an autoimmune disease.
Meningitis - Meningitis means inflammation of the meninges, which are the membranes that line the brain and spinal cord. Most cases of meningitis are due to bacterial or viral infection. Some forms occur in specific breeds however, and are believed to have an inherited basis. This may be because of a genetically determined abnormality of the immune system.
Adison's Disease -
Low tolerance for some anesthetics
Allergies - allergic reactions may be due to chemicals, parasites, food, environment, etc.
1) The Association of Veterinarians for Animal Rights: CANINE CONSUMER REPORT - A Guide to Herediary and Congenital Diseases in Purebred Dogs - August 1994
2) HEREDITARY & CONGENITAL DISEASES IN PUREBRED DOGS - Author Unknown- possibly W. J Rossfkopf, Jr. D.V.M.
3) Dr. Rocky Di Fruscia: Cardiovacular Diseases of the Dog, Purebred Dogs American Kennel Gazette, April 1980
4) Pat Katomski: HEREDITARY CARDIOVASCULAR DEFECTS IN THE KEESHOND, Kee Tales, April 1976
5) Harry S. Newman, D.V.M.: PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOUSUS AND TETROLOGY OF FALLOT, Kee Topics, November - December 1972
6) Charles W. Foley, Ph.D.: GENETIC DEFECTS IN THE DOG, Pure-bred Dogs American Kennel Gazette - May 1980
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